Yodan (Godan) Verbs
*If you've noticed, I've put the word Godan everytime I posted the word Yodan. Well, if you haven't guessed, it's because you can call them either name. And again, as said in the last lesson, Native speakers wouldn't know what Yodan verbs are. It's a term used to teach the students studying Japanese.
Yodan verbs are just a tad bit more complicated than Ichidan Verbs. Yodan verbs have more different endings which means there's more than one suffix to learn to change to past tense form. Don't worry though, it's not as hard as it may sound.
-U -TSU -RU -tta
-MU -NU -BU -nda
-KU -GU -ita -da (-ida)
That's the only thing you need to remember, besides the verb of course, to learn how to change the endings.
The Yodan verbs that end in -U, -TSU, and -RU will change to -tta.
The verbs ending in -MU, -NU, and -BU will change to -nda.
The verbs ending in -KU will change to -ita,
-GU will change to -ida.
And last but not least, -SU will change to -shita.
You should turn the trick into your own little tune to remember it easily.
Now time for a few examples.
One example for each.
Kau (To Buy/To Keep) - Katta (Bought/Kept)
See how the -U changed to -tta?
Matsu (To Wait) - Matta (Waited)
Toru (To Take) - Totta (Took)
Yasumu (To Rest) - Yasunda (Rested)
The next part of the tune, -MU changes to -nda.
Shinu (To Die) - Shinda (Died)
*This is the only -NU verb
Asobu (To Play) - Asonda (Played)
Itadaku (To Receive) - Itadaita (Received)
-KU changes to -ita
Oyogu (To Swim) - Oyoida (Swam)
-GU changes to -ida
Kasu (To Lend) - Kashita (Lended)
-SU changes to -shita
*In the '-U -TSU -RU -tta' tune, when it comes to the -KU and -GU it says -da for the -GU. Notice they took off the I that's supposed to be infront of the -da. Note, that's just to help with the rhythm. If you'd like the rythm to have an I infront of the -da, go right on ahead and add it.
Here's a list of Yodan verbs for you to study
(But be prepared, there are a lot)
*remember, take your time when learning a new language. It takes time but you'll get it down when you try. Maybe try studying one or a few verbs a day. It'll come to you.
Au - To Meet
Tatsu - To Stand
Hairu - To Enter
Chiru - To Fall/To Scatter
Kiru - To Cut
Hashiru - To Run
Iru - To Need/To Exist
Kaeru - To Return
Kageru - To Limit
Keru - To Kick
Mairu - To Come/To Go
Nigiru - To Grasp
Shiru - To Know
Matsu - To Wait
Toru - To Take
Kau - To Buy/To Keep
Yomu - To Read
Shinu - To Die
Yobu - To Call Out/To Invite
Tobu - To Fly/To Jump
Isogu - To Hurry
Tataku - To Strike/To Clap
Hanasu - To Speak
Aruku - To Walk
Kasu - To Lend
Asobu - To Play
Aru - To Be/To Exist/To Have
Chigau - To Be Different/To Be Mistaken
Furu - To Fall (Rain, Snow)
Gozaru - To Be/To Exist/To Have
Irassharu - To Go/To Come/To Be
Itadaku - To Receive
Iu - To Say/To Relate
Kakaru - To Take (Time)
Kaku - To Write
Kiku - To Hear/To Ask
Kudasaru - To Give to Speaker
Kakeru - To Call (Telephone)
Magaru - To Turn
Marau - To Receive
Motsu - To Have/To Hold
Motte iku - To Take (A Place)
Motte kuru - To Bring
Naru - To Become/To Get
Noboru - To Drink
Nuru - To Paint
Omou - To Think
Owaru - To End/To Finish
Oyogu - To Swim
Sagasu - To Look For
Saku - To Bloom
Sumu - To Live
Suwaru - To Sit Down
Tomaru - To Stay Overnight
Tsukau - To Use
Ugoku - To Move/To Change
Umu - To Produce/To Give Birth
Uru - To Sell
Wakaru - To Understand
Yaru - To Give
Yasumu - To Rest
Ageru - To Give/To Raise
Miru - To Look/To Watch
Ochiru - To Fall
Oboeru - To Remember
Kimeru - To Decide/To Fix/To Choose
Kariru - To Borrow
Dekakeru - To Go Out
Ikiru - To Live/To Become Alive
Ireru - To Be/To Exist
Kangaeru - To Think About/To Consider
Kudaberu - To Compare
Kureru - To Give to Speaker
Mukeru - To Turn
Oriru - To Get Off
Sashiageru - To Give
Tsukareru - To Become Tired
Tsukuru - To Make
Tsutomeru - To Be Employed
*The verb Kudasaru is almost like the word Please.
You'll be the one to say it, it's asking to give something to you, Not the other person (As in taking).
Kudasai means please, know it comes from the verb Kudasaru.
There are only four irregular verbs in the Japanese language. What a relief, right?
And here they are.
Kuru (To Come) - Kita (Came)
Suru (To Do) - Shita (Did)
Da (To Be/Is, Am, Are, ect..) - Datta (Was, Had, ect..)
Iku (To Go) - Itta (Went)
*Yomu and Yobu conjugate with the same suffix. In the end you get Yonda for both verbs. Be aware of the contex to know exactly what verb the other person happens to be using.
And be sure to remember
-U -TSU -RU -tta
-MU -NU -BU -nda
-KU -GU -ita -da
*Native speakers do not know what Ichiban Verbs are. It's a term used to teach the students an easy way to learn Japanese verbs. Same with Yodan (or Godan).
There are more Yodan (or Godan) Verbs than there are Ichidan Verbs. That's why I'll teach you the Ichidan Verbs first.
Ichidan Verbs all end in the suffix -ru, there for they're easy to conjugate.
Verbs in Japanese only have to be changed to past tense form, otherwise it stays the same. (for present, future, and even plural tense)
If you hear the verb suffix changed to -masu or -imasu, it's only conjugated to the polite form.
To change an Ichidan Verb to past tense, take off the suffix -ru and add -ta
Example: Taberu (to eat) conjugates to Tabeta (ate).
Easy enough, right?
But be careful, there are Yodan (or Godan) Verbs that end in -ru which require a different suffix for past tense form.
Here's a list of Ichidan Verbs so you don't get confused.
Akeru - To Open
Shimeru - To Close
Dekiru - To be Able to
Oshieru - To Tell/To Teach
Todokeru - Deliver
Taberu - To Eat
Deru - To Leave/To Exit
Miseru - To Show
Okiru - To Get Up
Kotaeru - To Answer
Yameru - To Stop/To Resign
Shinjiru - To Believe/To Trust
Kanjiru - To Feel/To Sense
Nigeru - To Run Away/To Escape
Wasureru - To Forget
Tasukeru - To Save
Akirameru - To Give Up
Hajimeru - To Begin
Tsuzukeru - To Continue
Umareru - To Be Born
**Verbs do not have to be conjugated depending on person.
Example: The "To Be" verb (Is, Are, Am)
In English, you'd have to change depending on person.
But in Japanese it would stay the same unless in past tense form.
It's understood as the proper "To Be" form.
Since you've already learned word order, it's time you've had vocabulary to be able to form your own sentences.
*Remember, wa comes after the subject, o come after the object in a sentence.
Watashi - I
Watashi no - My
Kimi - You
*He and She doesn't exist in Japan, you'd say the person's name instead.
Desu - is/are/am
*Verbs are only conjugated into past tense form. Plural form or person doesn't exist in Japan.
Ano - That
Aka(i) - Red
Orenji - Orange
Kiiro(i) - Yellow
Midori - Green
Ao(i) - Blue
Murasaki - Purple
Pinku - Pink
Mizuiro - Sky Blue
Chairo(i) - Brown
Shiro(i) - White
Haiiro(i) - Grey
Kuro(i) - Black
NOUNS AND OBJECTS:
Inu - Dog
Neko - Cat
Sora - Sky
Riku - Land
Kusa - Grass
Ki - Tree
Tabemono - Food
Mizu - Water
Hon - Book
Terebi - Television
Pen - Pen
With this lesson, you will be able to form your own sentences. You'd probably say something like the cat is black, Neko wa kuroi desu, or the black cat, Kuroi neko.
*If you'd like to make it plural, The cats are black, you'd say the same exact thing, Neko wa kuroi desu. Like I said before, plural doesn't really exist in Japan. It does, however, if you really want to make it clear. Just add the suffix -tachi to the subject. Neko-tachi wa kuroi desu. The verb desu does not change even if you make it clear there is more than one subject.
This lesson is only a few vocab to satisfy those "Japanese urges" you get. Real vocab will be up next so be ready.
In English, word order is Subject-Verb-Object,
But in Japanese, it's Subject-Object-Verb.
Take this for example...
The dog will eat the cat - Inu wa neko o tabemasu.
inu - dog
neko - cat
tabemasu - will eat
wa is used to mark the subject. In every sentence, the particle wa should come directly after the subject.
same goes with 'o'. 'O' is the object marker and should always come right after the object.
Let's try one a little bit different.
The Sky is Blue - Sora wa aoi desu.
Not much of an object, but to say something is, use the same structer.
wa (Subject Marker)
*Because there's no object, the particle o is not needed.
Sora - Sky
wa - Subj. Marker
aoi - Blue
desu - Is
Now, when you're directly saying something is,
such as "blue sky" instead of "The sky is blue", you won't use the Subj-Obj-Verb structure.
Instead, you'd say...
Just as in English.
That's all for this lesson. If you have any questions be sure to post and I'll be as quick as possible to answer.
Konnichiwa mina-san! I am your tutor Kanna. In this lesson I will be teaching you how to pronounce each letter, syllable, and word.
A - AH (as in father)
I - EE (as in week)
U - OO (as in moon)
E - EH (as in men)
O - OH (as in no)
***Sometimes the U and the I doesn't make any sound at all. If you don't know when, you can say them anyway, it wouldn't be wrong or sound funny. Also, when two vowels are put together, it may seem to make a different sound just because of fast speech.
EXAMPLE: Shiroi (White)
The 'OI' in Shiroi may sound like 'OY' in Boy.
Shee-Roh-EE said fast sounds like Shee-Roy
If you want, you can say each letter.
Shee-Roh-EE, it's understood and even said by the Japanese themselves.
Ai - as in Eye
Iu - as in You
Ui - as in We
Oi - as in Oy
Each consonant makes its own sound. No consonant has two different sounds, this is the reason why the Japanese language is so easy to speak. The hardest sounds to learn will probably be the consonants F, R, and the syllable TSU. Otherwise, it's pretty easy. Those will be discussed after I introduce the sounds.
B - Bad
C - Church ** The letter H always follows the letter C.
D - Dad
F - How **The F sounds more like an H to non-native speakers.
G - Good
H - Hello
J - Jet
K - Kick
M - Man
N - Night
P - Pretty
R - Like **The R takes the sound of the L.
S - Snake
T - Touch
W - Win
Y - Yes
Z - Zebra
*The F's sound may commonly be mistaken for the letter H to non-native speakers. The sounds does happen to be different by a different placement of the lips and teeth.
Hold you teeth behind your lips without touching the two. Blow like your are trying to make an F sound. You should hear the different between the F and the H, but understand why it is commonly mistaken for the sound of an H.
An easy way to tell the two apart if you are not completely sure is the letter U never follows the H and the letter F is only followed by a U.
*There is no letter L in the Japanese language, therefore, the R takes its place. The letter R may not only make that sound, it may also sounds more like the Spanish R. The L sound is pretty easy, The Spanish R sounds is what gets most people.
Say the word butter as you would normally say it. The T's sound almost like a D, but not as stressed. That's exactly how a Spanish R would sound.
-I said each consonant makes only one sound, this isn't an exception. Although it can make two sounds, it is understood as either sound no matter what word you say.
*Notice: The Japanese language does not contain the letters L, Q, V, and X.
Two consonants may be put together. It will either be double consonants (kk, ss, etc.), the letters CH, TS, or the letter N before a consonant. When the letter Y comes after a consonant, it is considered a vowel.
When double consonants are put together, hold out the consonant a bit longer.
Kitta and Kita
Kitta is pronounced Keet tah.
Kita is pronounced Kee tah.
Kitta means cut (past tense), while Kita means north. Definitely don't want to mix those two up.
Same with vowels. When the same vowel comes after another, just hold it out longer.
*An exception, the letter O may be followed by a U.
If you see a line over the vowel, it also means to hold it out longer or to stress the vowel. It can also be spelled without the line as long as you place the same vowel afterwards.
Ohayo (Gozaimasu) - Good Morning (said until 10:00 a.m)
Konnichiwa (Gozaimasu) - Good Afternoon (Said until dark)
Konbanwa (Gozaimasu) - Good Evening (Said when it's dark)
Sayonara (Gozaimasu) - Good Bye
Genki desu ka? - How are you?
Hai, genki desu. - Fine, thank you.
High, Gehn-Kee Dehs
Arigato (Gozaimasu) - Thank you
Doitashimashite - You're Welcome
*An easy way to remember this is "Don't touch my mustache".
Hajimemashite - Nice to meet you.
Sumimasen - Excuse me
Gomen(asai) - Sorry
Hai - Yes
Iie - No
Namae wa nan desu ka? - What is your name?
Nah-Mah-Eh Wah Nahn Dehs Kah
Watashi no namae wa __________ desu. - My name is __________.
Wah-Tah-Shee Noh Nah-Mah-Eh Wah __________ Dehs.
*An easier way would be 'your name + desu.'
Don't worry if you don't get it right away. It'll come to your as long as you keep practicing!
The first 100 kanji will be posted here.
I do not have them yet, they really do take a long time to put together. I will have them up as soon as possible, for now, the next lessons will be posted but i recommend you wait until you have learned the kanji. Learning the kanji will make learning the language and the writing so much easier! But if you decide to learn the language first, the kanji can be a bit challenging. Either way, it is up to you.
Sorry for the delay.
In this lesson, I will teach you to write Hiragana and Katakana characters. They may seem a little intimidating at first, but it is actually pretty simple. Once you get the hang of it, it comes easy and natural. Just keep practicing! And remember, if you do not use it, you lose it, so keep it in mind.
Hiragana is a format used for native Japanese words. Anything that is originally a Japanese word will either be written in Hiragana or Kanji, sometimes even both.
Good Afternoon - Konnichiwa ・This word is natively Japanese, therefore it is written as こんにちは. The Katakana characters would be コンニチハ, but that would be wrong.
Katakana is a format used for foreign words. Just like most languages, the Japanese language has a few words that are borrowed from other languages. Those words are written in Katakana.
Light - Raito ・This is a word borrowed from the English language, therefore it is written as ライト. The Hiragana characters would be らいと, but that would be wrong.
Hiragana and Katakana characters are always followed by a vowel with the exception of the letter 'N' by itself. The charts below are arranged according to the side panel (the consonants) and the top panel (the vowels). The vowels at the top plus the consonant on the side create the characters.
The letter 'K' plus the letter 'A' create the character か in Hiragana, and the character カ in Katakana.
The characters are marked under 'H' (Hiragana) and 'K' (Katakana) for easy reference to which character belongs in which category.
The character boxes marked with an asterisk (*) and a syllable by it are exceptions.
The letter 'T' plus the letter 'I' creates the character ち or the syllable 'chi' in Hiragana, and the character チ or 'chi' in Katakana. There is no such syllable as 'Ti' in the Japanese language.
The Japanese language is made up of only syllables including the letter 'n' as a syllable by itself.
Kana Chart 1:
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*The letter 'n' at the bottom of this chart does not coordinate with the vowels above. The letter 'n' in this case comes alone.
Kana Chart 2:
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***MORE CHARTS COMING SOON!